It is commonly held that memory contributes to our sense of self, or that memory plays a constitutive role in our narrative selfhood. Such views are prevalent both in philosophy (cf. Macintyre 1981; Schechtman 2007; Hutto and McGivern 2016; McCarroll 2018) and psychology (cf. Conway, Singer and Tagini 2004; Conway 2005; Prebble, Addis and Tippett 2013). The current paper focuses on the reverse relation, which has received far less attention: How does the narrative self modulate our episodic memory? For instance, do narratives we formulate about ourselves impact the encoding, storage, accessibility or retrieval of episodic memories? Can a narrative self change the core content of an episode that we remember? Could it be the case that whether or not an object serves as a cue for retrieval, depends on the narrative of that person? We aim to demonstrate and characterize the systematic influences of the narrative self on episodic memory.
A detailed theory of the influence of the narrative self on episodic memory has at least the following important consequences: (i) we could rebut radical scepticism about any causal role of the narrative self, (ii) we could update or modify the account of future projections and of mental time travel in general and clarify the relation between episodic remembering and episodic future thinking, (iii) we would gain a factor that would allow us to elucidate systematic individual differences in episodic recall. Let us shortly elaborate on these motivations:
Empirical and theoretical research on memory has suggested a diverse set of taxonomies and distinctions to demarcate memory systems. An overall trend in the past few decades of memory research has been to emphasize the fact that episodic memory does not consist of simply reactivating a stored episode but rather that recalling an event involves constructive processes which may modify the original episode. In this respect, various memory frameworks have highlighted that episodic memory may be generative (Conway 2005), that we construct or reconstruct particular episodes (Schacter and Addis 2007) or that we engage in a sort of scene construction when remembering (Hassabis and Maguire 2007). Our proposal fits this trend of emphasizing the reconstructive nature of memory, yet our account of influences of the narrative self does not presuppose any particular constructive framework. Nevertheless, we have a preferred background theory, namely the framework of scenario construction (see e.g. Cheng, Werning and Suddendorf 2016; Cheng and Werning 2016). Roughly, this framework suggests that a process of scenario construction starts when a cue triggers retrieval, thereby activating, on the one hand, the episodic memory trace containing the gist of an episode, and on the other hand semantic information that is relevant to that retrieval cue and the activated gist (cf. Figure 1). Importantly, the episodic memory trace and the semantic information may interact to enrich the gist to a full scenario that is recalled. Importantly, the Scenario Construction framework is a model of diachronic memory processes, so any constructed scenario may feed into subsequent instances of scenario construction by affecting the gist or semantic information.
We identified two different dimensions in episodic remembering and episodic future thinking that showed a similar pattern across all four past and future event categories. One was imagery, referring to sensory imagery and a subjective feeling of reliving (or preliving) the event. The other was self-narrative, referring to how personally important and central to the life story and identity the remembered or imagined event was considered to be. Consistently across all four event categories, imagery dropped with increasing distance to the present, whereas self-narrative increased with increasing temporal distance to the present. (Berntsen and Bohn 2010, p.275)
These are the words that we learned as kids in our mother tongue. Colors, animals, numbers, clothes, family, etc. You need to start with this because they are very common. If you want to learn just what is most useful for you, then you could learn the animals that you can see in your country or city, the colors you tend to talk about, the family members you live with, etc. In these pages, you can include pictures or draws to make it more visual and easier to learn.
Thomas Evans . I keep a public-house, the Star and Garter, in St. Martin's-lane. It is about three months since I first saw the prisoner: I believe he used my house about seven or eight weeks in the whole. I have given him change for half a guinea several times. I don't remember changing him any thing but half guineas. I think on the 5th of December last I changed him one; and after he was gone out of the house, I turned it round, and thought I never saw one bent in that manner as it was. I shewed it to some of the company in the house, and then I weighed it.
Prisoner. I look upon this to be a malicious prosecution, owing to a dispute that happened in Mr. Evans's house, among some Scotch gentlemen. Don't you remember, Mr. Evans, that there was a dispute there, about the time of your information.
Lynn. She said, she had pawned my bible and the gown for six shillings. I do not remember what she said she pawned the other things for. [The curtains, bible, callica-sheet, gown and saucepan, produced in court, and deposed to.]
Norman. The reason I remember it is, I had a letter from out of the country, and Mr. Campbell sent me out for some paper, and I brought some paper to answer his purpose and mine too; the first I brought, he did not like, it was not fine enough; then he sent me out for some thin paper.
J. Doe. I heard the words to make up, and I heard him speak of seventy-two or seventy-four pounds; but Mr. Low can remember better than I, he came to my assistance when the gentleman called out for a constable.
E. Stevens. Yes. Mr. Hudson followed my husband in, and Mr. Campbell got out at the door, and would not pay for the liquor. Mr. Pearson said, Madam, I have no money in my pocket, but I'll leave my gold watch, and come to-morrow and pay you. I said, I will not have your watch, I'll trust you I remember Campbell going three times out of the room, and the last time he brought a woman in with him: the woman asked me what damage he had done; I said he had broke some china.
E. Stevens. This was before Mr. Pearson was gone, Mr. Pearson staid about two hours after. ISee original remember Mr. Campbell said, if he could not have the advantage of him then, he would when he came from duty at St. James's. [Note, Mr. Pearson is one of the gentlemen-pensioners.]
William Stevens . I keep this house. I remember Mr. Pearson and Mr. Campbell coming into our tap-room. Mr. Campbell called for a private room. I laid a fire for them. Mr. Campbell called for a shilling's-worth of rum and water. After I had lighted the fire, I went about other business. My wife went to their room door, and it was locked. She called me.
Mr. Gibbens. Mr. Campbell imployed me to sell some houses for him by auction. I believe him to be a very honest man, he paid me very honestly, I never heard a bad character of him. I remember Mr. Pearson was by at the time, he never bid any thing, though he swears he did.
[Page 56]POpe Innocentius the Seuenth, beyng bishop of Rome, the Monkish order of the Hieronimians, began vnder the name of Saint Hierom whiche after Christes byrthe. 490. leauing his natiue coūtrey, wēt into Iury & there not farre from Bethlehē, builded him an house where he liued very deuoutly in the latter ende of his lyfe, These Apes and counterfaitors of S. Hierome weare their clothes of white and a cope plaited aboue ouer theyr coate, gyrde with a leather gyrdle. In the yere. &c. 145. This order was endued with diuers priueleges, fraunchises and liberties by certaine bishoppes of Rome, as Gregory the twelfthe Eugenius the fourthe. &c. Chron. Polydor. Libro Germ.
POpe Gregory the Sixte bearyng rule, Ioannes Gualbertus a knight began this order in a certayne mountayne called, valla vmbrosa, that is to say, a shadowie valley, vnder Benets rule, with adding therto, & chaungyng of black clothes into gray. In the yere, &c. 1038 Chron. Polyd. Lib. Germ.
POpe Gregorye the seuenth being bishop of Rome,Bruno. Bruno of Colein ye Philosopher & diuine, whom Barnarde calleth a faire piller of ye church, did institute ye order of ye Charterhouse mōks in ye diocesse of Gracianopolis, at a place [Page] named Curtusia. Their lyfe was outwardlye full of paynted holynesse, in forbearyng fleshe, in fastyng breade and water euery fridaye, in wearyng hayrye clothes nexte theyr bodye, full of solitarynesse, much silence euer pinned in, neuer going oute, refusyng all womens company, with other semblable ceremonyes. In the yeare of oure Lorde. 1620. Ibidem.
POpe Boniface bearyng rule, the order, which is called Ordo de albatorum was inuented by a certayne priest in Italy, which pretēded such a modesty and grauity both in woordes and in countenaunce that euery man toke him for a Sainct. The professors of this order were cladde all with long white lynnen clothes euen down to the ground, hauyng coules vpon theyr heads lyke vnto other Monkes. [Page] The chief point of their profession was to lament the state of mankind, to bewaile the sinnes of the people, and to pray for a redresse of ye same at gods hand. They neuer wente abroade but they had a crosse with the image of the crucifyx borne before thē, which crosse ye Lucenses kepe at this day with great reuerence as a moste precious relique, and daily make vowes, & offer diuers giftes vnto it. But Pope Boniface aforesayd conceauyng that they should do no good to hys honourable estate, if they continued, forasmuch as they all appeared before men righteous, good and Godly, and the Pope with hys cō plices, most wicked, euel and vngodly, caused the author of thys order as a seditious person to be beheaded at Viterbium. Some say that he was brent as a superstitious hipocrite, and attaynted of some heresye. In the yeare of oure Lorde .1400. Lib. Germ. Philip. Bergom. Polid. &c. 781b155fdc